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Monday, 18 July 2016 05:03

Causes of Diabetes: Pg2(Symptoms, Treatments and Videos)

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How to determine whether you have diabetes, prediabetes or neither

Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways - there are three possible tests:

The A1C test

- at least 6.5% means diabetes

- between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes

- less than 5.7% means normal

The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test

- at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes

- between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes

- less than 100 mg/dl means normal

An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)

The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)

- at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes

- between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes

- less than 140 mg/dl means normal

Make sure that you read Dangerous Causes of Diabetes and signs

An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

Controlling diabetes - treatment is effective and important

All types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime, however, some people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication, through a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control.

Diabetes equipment and a healthy breakfast

Special diets can help people with type 2 diabetes control the condition. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients. They added that within three to five years the disease recurs in approximately 21% of them. Yessica Ramos, MD., said "The recurrence rate was mainly influenced by a longstanding history of Type 2 diabetes before the surgery. This suggests that early surgical intervention in the obese, diabetic population will improve the durability of remission of Type 2 diabetes.

Patients with type 1 are treated with regular insulin injections, as well as a special diet and exercise.

Patients with Type 2 diabetes are usually treated with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin injections are also required.

If diabetes is not adequately controlled the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications.

Below is a list of possible complications that can be caused by badly controlled diabetes:

  • Eye complications - glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and some others.
  • Foot complications - neuropathy, ulcers, and sometimes gangrene which may require that the foot be amputated
  • Skin complications - people with diabetes are more susceptible to skin infections and skin disorders
  • Heart problems - such as ischemic heart disease, when the blood supply to the heart muscle is diminished
  • Hypertension - common in people with diabetes, which can raise the risk of kidney disease, eye problems, heart attack and stroke
  • Mental health - uncontrolled diabetes raises the risk of suffering from depression, anxiety and some other mental disorders
  • Hearing loss - diabetes patients have a higher risk of developing hearing problems
  • Gum disease - there is a much higher prevalence of gum disease among diabetes patients
  • Gastroparesis - the muscles of the stomach stop working properly
  • Ketoacidosis - a combination of ketosis and acidosis; accumulation of ketone bodies and acidity in the blood.
  • Neuropathy - diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems.
  • HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome) - blood glucose levels shoot up too high, and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine. It is an emergency condition.
  • Nephropathy - uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to kidney disease
  • PAD (peripheral arterial disease) - symptoms may include pain in the leg, tingling and sometimes problems walking properly
  • Stroke - if blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels are not controlled, the risk of stroke increases significantly
  • Erectile dysfunction - male impotence.
  • Infections - people with badly controlled diabetes are much more susceptible to infections
  • Healing of wounds - cuts and lesions take much longer to heal

 

Symptoms of Diabetes

It is possible to have diabetes with only very mild symptoms or without developing any symptoms at all. Such cases can leave some people with diabetes unaware of the condition and undiagnosed. This happens in around half of people with type 2 diabetes.

A condition known as prediabetes that often leads to type 2 diabetes also produces no symptoms. Type 2 diabetes and its symptoms develop slowly.

Type 1 diabetes can go unnoticed but is less likely to do so. Some of its symptoms listed below can come on abruptly and be accompanied by nausea, vomiting or stomach pains.

It is important to see a doctor if there is any suspicion of diabetes or if any of the below signs and symptoms are present - prompt diagnosis and management lowers the likelihood of serious complications.

The most common symptoms are related to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), especially the classic symptoms of diabetes: frequent urination and thirst. Fatigue related to dehydration and eating problems can also be related to high blood sugars.

The International Diabetes Foundation highlights four symptoms that should prompt someone to get checked for diabetes as soon as possible.

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Read 12870 times Last modified on Wednesday, 04 January 2017 09:42

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